投资人为什么看好京东?

众所周知,阿里巴巴是中国的电子商务之王。在过去十年里,很多有实力的竞争对手都想进入阿里巴巴的地盘分一杯羹。虽然我们不能将这些竞争对手的努力都归结为铩羽而归,但确实成效很有限。时至今日,阿里仍然占据了中国电子商务市场约八成的交易额。不过,最近两年快速崛起的京东商场似乎有望改变这种状况。

京东商城的崛起离不开资本的支持,在2011年该公司曾经完成中国有史以来最大的一笔私募融资,据传高达15亿美元,比许多公司公开上市募集的资金还多。问题是,投资人为什么如此看好一家尚未实现盈利的公司?何况这家公司所定位的市场已经有一家处于主导地位的强大竞争对手。

答案首先在于差异化。京东商城与阿里巴巴集团提供的电子商务服务具有明显的差异。创始人刘强东认为“京东是一家以技术驱动的供应链服务公司,而阿里巴巴旗下的淘宝是信息交易平台,两者存在质的不同”。京东大规模自建物流,提供“当日达”服务是这种差异化的一个外在表现。当初,京东的这两项举动受到业界广泛批评,我相信刘强东也承受了不小的压力,即使到今天,京东巨额的物流投资仍然经常被人拿出来批评。批评者的论点是物流不应当是互联网公司干的活,应当交给专业的人去做。批评者的观点看似有些许道理,但问题是,他们也许该调查一下,中国市场上究竟有没有能够提供刘强东所期望的服务的物流公司再下结论。从刘强东的角度看,电子商务如不能提供“当日达”的服务,与传统的商业竞争就永远有一个明显的缺陷,这也是他下决心推出该服务的原因。

投资人看好京东第二个原因,很可能是刘强东本人的能力。刘强东是一位非常勤奋的人,他相信只有比别人付出更多,才能收获更多。刘强东的能力体现在对行业的深刻认识和快速学习,本刊上一次采访他时我感觉他对亚马逊的研究还不多,但本次采访时发现他已经对亚马逊进行了深入研究;他的能力也体现在员工高速增长的情况下仍然能够保证公司非常强的执行力,而且他本人更是保持着对一线员工的密切关注。正是刘强东的这种个性,使得他能够带领京东去做一些其他人不愿干、也无力干的一些脏活、累活和苦活,最终也成就了京东飞速的增长——从2007年首次获得风险投资开始,京东每年的增长率都超过了100%,2012年交易额有望达到100亿美元。

投资人看好京东的第三个原因在于零售业是一个规模巨大的行业,也是一个创造巨额财富的行业。《财富》杂志曾经报道过美国最富有家族——沃尔顿,其财富来源就由山姆·沃尔顿创建的全球最大的零售企业沃尔玛。俗话说,有多大的池塘养多大的鱼,对于资本而言,零售业无疑是个养大鱼的池塘。与此同时,零售业又是一个极其辛苦的行业,毛利率很低,净利往往只有一两个百分点,这个行业的最终胜出者总是那些在成本控制、运营效率和客户体验比竞争对手做得更好的公司。刘强东的个性也许给投资人增添了不少信心。

对京东的投资人而言,最后一个好消息是,中国网民的购物习惯正在从C2C这种服务比较粗放的模式向B2C这种服务更好的模式升级,而且他们愿意为服务的提升支付溢价。

最后,让我们祝贺当选本刊年度中国商人的刘强东,鉴于他在电子商务市场种种颠覆性的举措和令人炫目的业绩,他当之无愧。


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投资人为什么看好京东?》上有 8 条评论

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