雾霾问题有解吗?

互联网的热点现象总是来去匆匆,月初,一部由央视前知名记者制作的纪录片《穹顶之下》讨论了中国的雾霾问题,在新媒体上制造了一场病毒传播,引发了特别激烈的争论。然而到了月底,一切又归于平静。

前两天,北京刮起了沙尘,让人又想起了那部纪录片。 在一二十年前,困扰北京的不是雾霾,而沙尘暴。如果你90年代在北京生活过,应该对三天两头的沙尘暴印象深刻:上午还是晴空万里,到下午大风裹着沙子吹天,整个城市好像提前进入了黄昏。这时候出门,口鼻里很快沾满沙子,让人感觉非常难受。那时候,连可见沙粒都能飘在空中久久不散,就更不用说细颗粒物了。

沙尘暴曾经是末世的象征,是中国不顾环境发展经济,祸害子孙的罪证。当时的人们觉得这问题无解,因为植被不是短期可以恢复的。严重的沙尘暴甚至刺激了上个世纪末的中国人移民潮。当时很多人觉得,中国已是不是宜居的危邦、乱邦。为了后半生的健康和稳定,一定要尽快移民。如今的情况和从前略似。

然而现在沙尘暴很少有人讨论,因为它消失了。虽说每年还有那么几天,北京会刮起沙尘,但那种昏天黑地的震撼场面已经难见到了。而这十几年也是中国经济增长最快的时期,可以说,中国一边发展,一边把这个问题解决了。

雾霾和沙尘暴一样,也经济发展到一定阶段的产物。它不是与我们无关的他者,而是因我们的存在而存在。雾霾早已不是新鲜话题,这几年关于它的讨论非常多,连我都不小心接触过有关雾霾成因的专业论文。

APEC期间,河北很多工厂的停工,北京的空气质量也随之好转。但这只是权宜之计。限制或取消生产并不能根治雾霾,反而不利于环保。比如,河北的钢厂被强行限制产能。产量不能提高,钢铁企业就不能升级设备,比如换上产量大低成本低的大型高炉,只能继续用原来小一点高炉。与之配套的其他设备自然也得不到更新。所以限制产能往好了说只是遏制了雾霾的增量。正确的作法其实是更新设备、提高产能,采用新技术,降低污染气体的排放。

沙尘暴的问题在不断发展中解决了,雾霾也只能这么解决。几年来,研究和解决雾霾的努力从未停止过,实际上早已不需要谁来拍一部纪录片去揭示它的严重性。穹顶之下,希望总是有的。

 


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