造好马桶盖就行了?

不久前,某财经作家写了一篇文章《中国中产为何蜂拥去日本买马桶盖》,提到了他的同事在日本买了一些很好的产品,价格虽然贵,但是质量、功能都比国产的好,比如用日本制造的电饭煲煮出的米饭,更加香甜;坐在日本生产的马桶盖,能让你的屁股“洁净似玉,如沐春风”。作者由此认为,整个中国制造都要向日本制造学习,专注把普通产品做到极致,去满足中产消费者越来越挑剔的需求。作者断言:世界上没有落后的产业,只有落后的企业和人

文章最后,作者说:“中国制造”的明天,并不在他处,而仅仅在于——能否做出打动人心的产品,让我们的中产家庭不必越洋去买马桶盖

这位文章反响很大,大批消费者远赴东洋抢购,导致当地电饭煲和马桶盖脱销。官媒也发文力挺,很多读者看了兴奋,网上一片颂扬日本制造的声音,大多数人同时顺便黑一下中国制造。

但这篇文章的观点与事实不符。首先,历史上,有过一些专注于某种强项产品而错失机遇的企业。从前的IBM一心做好大型机,却把个人电脑的机遇让给了微软和苹果;柯达是数码相机的先驱,却坚守传统胶片业务,最后不得不申请破产保护。一味专注本业,好机会来却不作为,反而成为落后的企业。

其次,日本企业也不是什么产品都能一直做好,比如它们的传统强项——电视机。日企在显像管时代是霸主,那时候给人的感觉是不可超越的。后来,全行业转向平板。作为平板显示技术的强者,日企的转型也非常及时。相比之下,中国企业在平板时代面临“缺屏少芯”的窘境,看上去非常脆弱。可现在又怎么样呢?中国的电视机企业至今仍然在快速成长,已经打入产业链的上游。而无论是松下的等离子,还是索尼的液晶,都在“苦苦挣扎”。日企、为什么做不出一款精美绝伦、让人恨不能抱着睡觉的电视来,秒杀中国同类产品呢?

最后,数据表明,日本制造是中国制造的手下败将。实际上,从2003年起,中国对日本一直处于贸易顺差的状态。2014年,日本的全部贸易逆差超过1000亿美元,其中三分之二来自沙特阿拉伯、俄罗斯、澳大利亚这些能源和资源出口大国,剩下,三分之一竟然全部是来自中国!日本对其他国家,包括制造业强国德国,都取得了顺差,唯有中国制造在全球范围内完胜日本制造。

看到日本马桶盖做得好,就断定日本制造高出中国制造一等,是完全罔顾事实的谬论,纯属屁股决定脑袋!马桶盖、电饭煲、电吹风之类的东西做得再好,能代表一国的工业制造水准吗?中国高铁、北斗、通信设备、特高压输电设备、4G和5G标准、火电、水电、四代核电、煤制烯烃、量子通信、天河一号超级计算机、页岩气开采技术方面的进步,难道比不上日本的马桶盖和电饭煲?

实际上,日本这些产品是否真的很好,也成疑问。网上已经有文章指出,日本马桶盖的性能其实远没有媒体吹嘘得那样那么先进,中国企业也早有类产品,而且日本的产品大都是在中国生产的。

至于电饭煲,央视做过一次盲试,用同等价位中国和日本电饭煲煮饭,请来10位中老年消费者品尝。结果是5人认为中国造电饭煲煮出的米饭好吃,3人认为日本的更好,另有二人表示差别不大。煮出好米饭,需要的条件无非恒温和密封,这两点已经做到了标准化生产。所谓日本大米口感更佳,恐怕只是安慰剂效应。

当然,中国还有一些地方确实落后于日本,比如碳纤维、汽车和某些电子技术。中国企业还需要加倍努力,在这些领域实现赶超。目前,中国还暂时没有心情追求米饭的细腻口感或是方便后的快感。


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