清明节话《清明》诗

说到和清明有关的诗,相信大多数人和我一样,只能想起杜牧的那首《清明》。但是,这首诗究竟和清明节有多大关系,也许是个很值得讨论的问题。以我的发现,它很可能被误读了上千年。

全诗如下:

清明时节雨纷纷,路上行人欲断魂。借问酒家如何有,牧童遥指杏花村。

传统的解读一般是,作者在清明节前后出行,正好赶上下雨,路上的行人情绪忧伤。为了避雨,也为了解忧,行人向牧童询问哪里有酒家,牧童指向了远处的杏花村。

这样解读可能存在诸多不当之处。先从第一句说起。清明时节不一定指清明节前后的这段时间。清明,可以指政治上的清明; 时节,也有时候的意思。宋朝有幅名画《清明上河图》,里面描绘的景色就不是清明节而是秋天。作者在这里可能一语双关。

雨纷纷,被人解读成纷纷细雨。这是不对的。用来形容细雨的是霏霏。纷纷是多而杂乱的意思,比如我们经常说“大雪纷飞”。本诗用“纷纷”来形容雨,说明这一天下的是大雨,而且风向不定,雨点乱打,此时出行,即便打伞也会被淋湿。清明时节本该天气晴朗,此时出行本该心情愉快,结果偏偏下起大雨,行人的感觉一定不会好。

因此,作者在第二句中以 “断魂”来形容这种感受。所有解释都把“断魂”解释成哀伤、伤心。我认为这是错误的。它多数时候确实是这个意思。但诗词里的伤心、断魂有时候也不作表面意义解,而是用来表达对感官上的一种刺激程度。比如李白的“秦淮一带伤心碧”,是说秦淮一带的植被特别浓绿,到了吓人的程度,并不是说李白一看到那些树就伤心了。杜甫的诗“清江锦石伤心丽”也是一样,色彩绚丽的石头只可能让人看了动心,怎么会伤心呢?

断魂也有类似的用法,指的是一种难以忍受的感觉。林逋《山园小梅》:霜禽欲下先偷眼,粉蝶如知合断魂。这联实际上是个流水对,用的是拟人的手法,极为生动:寒雀在落地之前,总是忍不住偷偷欣赏一下梅花的美。这事一旦被粉蝶发现了,就会妒火中烧,无法忍受。(粉蝶是和梅花最亲近的,不允许有其他东西惦记它。)

本诗中断魂的用法和《山园小梅》一样,是说雨实在太大,路上行人被淋得实在受不了了。

“路上行人”应该不是别人,就是作者杜牧自己。这样一来,下面两句就很好解释了。由于被雨淋得受不了,他不愿再向前走,于是去询问一个牧童哪里有酒家,牧童给他指出了杏花村的方向。从最后一句里的“遥”字,可以隐约感受到作者饱受煎熬甚至略带绝望的心诚。

这首诗以头两个字做题目,其实其本相当于无题诗,暗喻的是不能明说的事情。诗中所描述的场景未必真的发生过。个人认为,杜牧在这里可能在暗示他的政治处境:“清明时节”虚写大环境, 近似于恭维; “雨纷纷”应该是现实处境; “路上”比喻仕途;“欲断魂”表示作者的痛苦心态; “酒家”是作者心中的理想乐土;“牧童”是作者遇到的一位不怕风雨的高人;“杏花村”是牧童给他指的出路。但杏花村里到底有没有酒家呢?原诗没有回答,可能作者也不知道。

作者在什么情况下写了这首诗?他曾险些遭遇极凶险的政变,也许这首诗就写在政变的前后。本人对杜牧缺乏了解,大概只有研究他的专家才能解答这些问题吧。但好诗总能跨越千年,给人以深刻的启迪。我们也不妨自问:我们生活的大世界是怎样的?身边的小环境又如何?酒家应该是什么样子?谁是我们的牧童?杏花村又在何方?

 


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