逼上梁山的真相(十三)

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本系前十二篇分析了林冲故事里的主要桥段,但还是不能说已经对整个情节做了合理的解释,仍有让笔者感到费解的细节。

在逼上梁山的故事中,主要人物的结局都不好:林冲家破人亡,高俅父子也没有达到自己的目的,鲁智深再度流浪江湖,但有一个人成为最大的受益者。在第二十回,晁盖派出小喽罗打探林冲家人的下落,小喽罗回来后汇报了林教头与张教头的结局,接着又说:“……止剩得使女锦儿,已招赘丈夫在家过活”。

对于锦儿,我们的了解少之又少,不太清楚她何以能够两次在关键时刻成功脱离高衙内骚扰林娘子的现场,给林冲通风报信。在林冲被发配后,她又随林娘子搬到了张教头那里。之后的事情就不得而知了。按理说,锦儿是林娘子的女使,只能算林家财产的一部分,没有资格做财产继承人。可是林家的变故居然让这个弱势群体的成员实现了逆袭,不但堂而皇之地占据了帝都军官的房产,还因此找到了老公。有想象力的编剧,或许可以根据这点线索,构想出更有悬疑的剧情来。

作者为什么要把锦儿的结局交待得这样清楚又这样美好呢?笔者认为,《水浒传》的作者是通过想点明锦儿的看似不合理的结局,最后一次提醒读者,逼上梁山不完全是一个关于强者压迫弱者的故事,没有看上去那样简单。但大部分读者没有理解作者的苦心。

逼山梁山的故事意义何在?主要在于它有助于让人重新审视历史。作者正面构建的林冲,符合传统的心理,因而广为流传;但被他暗地拆解后的林冲,几百年来却鲜为人知。历史往往记取了前者,而忽略了后者。

在一般读者的印象里,林冲和武松一样,是个顶天立地的英雄好汉。其实这俩都不是好东西。前面几篇都分析过,林冲虚伪、自私,而且非常势利,颇像大都市里的白领小资。在第十回,曾在东京干过店伙计的李小二对老婆说:“你不省得,林教头是个性急的,摸不着便要杀人放火。……”可见,在底层人士李小二的眼中,林冲是个凶猛的动物,和李逵差不多。但跟李逵不同的是,面对更加强势的人物,林冲立刻变得理性起来。比如他在处理岳庙事件上的冷静。在白虎堂,林冲明知遭陷害,仍然对着高俅一口一个恩相,乞活之意十分明显

历史的流传也是这个样子。和林冲的故事一样,真实的历史远比史书上讲的复杂。史书的作者因为认识能力有限或立场偏见,叙事做不到公正全面,甚至擅自捏造史实。大量有意义的细节都被有意无意地漏掉了,以至于我们无法窥得历史事件的全貌。

《左传春秋传》长达 18万字,对很多历史事件有很生动的记叙。这事想起来就不合理,上古人记载历史都很简略,《左传》作者如何把几百年前的事情写得活灵活现,就像亲眼目睹似的?作者这部书里添了大量私货,比如很多人物的高谈阔论,实际上就是作者自己的儒家思想。还有很多借历史人物之口说出的精准预言,都是因为相关事件在作者生前已经发生了。作者其实是按照按自己的三观构造了春秋的历史,但它显然不太符合真相。

《史记》被某人称为“史家之绝唱,无韵之《离骚》”。但实际上,司马迁瞎编乱造的本事不逊于写《左传》的人。看看《李斯列传》:秦始皇死后,赵高和胡亥、李斯谈话,都是海阔天空地一通大道理,最后决定篡改始皇遗诏,立胡亥为皇帝。人们不禁要问,如此涉及国家和个人命运的重大计谋,司马迁如何得知?赵高等人的密谈居然留下了公开纪录吗?难道司马迁穿越回秦朝,在异度空间里听到了他们的谈话?我们只能认为,这两段对话是作者捏造的。可两千多年来,这些对话一直被当成信史。

司马迁为什么要编这段对话呢?唯一的理由是他要证明秦始皇的本意是想立扶苏为帝。

《史记》里有关秦始皇的遗嘱只有一句话:“以兵属蒙恬,与会咸阳而葬”,称这是由赵高书写、赐给扶苏的。《史记》称赵高对胡亥说:“上崩,无诏封王诸子而独赐长子书。长子至,即立为皇帝。”后世于是认为,秦始皇在死前想立扶苏。但仅凭这一句话,根本不能证明这点。想立扶苏,直接说不完了吗?人都快死了,何必如此拐弯抹角?

更可能的情况是,秦始皇想立的其实是胡亥。但此时扶苏在北方监军,握有兵权,有可能不服他的安排。于是秦始皇给胡亥出了个主意:以参加葬礼的名义把扶苏请回咸阳,使其脱离军队并加以控制。这样看来,赵高和李斯只是秉承秦始皇的旨意办事,只不过方式粗暴了一些。

我们再进一步分析,既然秦始皇连怎么处理扶苏都想到了,就没有理由不对皇位继承这个最重大的问题做出安排。可《史记》偏偏借赵高之口说没有。这可能吗?与皇位继承人的相关遗诏也许毁于秦末战火,只有赐给扶苏的玺书留下了来,保存在汉朝的宫廷档案里,被太史令司马迁看到。但显然,他并没有秉笔直书,而以这条遗诏为依据,按自己的观点构造了一个不真实的历史。在《李斯列传》里,从“赵高在留所赐扶苏玺书”到“诈为受始皇诏丞相,立胡亥为太子”这一大段都是瞎编的。

分析林冲故事的方法,就是以可靠事实得出合理结论。用同样的方法分析古史,我们或许会得到一个更接近于真实同时也更有趣的全新历史面貌。

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