逼上梁山的真相(八)

谁害死了林娘子?(上)

林冲休妻是《水浒传》里的一个重要情节。英雄遭难,为了不耽误妻子的青春,忍痛把她休掉,如此悲情令许多读者心折,就连大学者李贽和金圣叹也在此处留下了感慨的批语。不过真相却是:林冲为了自保而残忍地抛弃了妻子

明眼人不难看出,林冲要对妻子张氏的死负责。如果他不休妻,张氏在法律上还是林冲的娘子,高俅后来上门逼亲就显得毫无道理。休妻让张氏失去了名分,面对高俅的逼迫,她进退失据,又不愿意屈从,只得一死了之。

那么,林冲这么做,是一时糊涂,还是有意为之?他肯定是故意的。在被发充军之前,林冲对岳父张教头说:

今小人遭这场横事,配去沧州,生死存亡未保。娘子在家,小人心去不稳,诚恐高衙内威逼这头亲事。况兼青春年少,休为林冲误了前程。却是林冲自行主张,非他人逼迫小人。今日就高邻在此,明白立纸休书,任从改嫁,并无争执。如此,林冲去的心稳。免得高衙内陷害。

在这里,林冲把休妻的原因和丈人讲得很清楚:“娘子在家,小人心去不稳,诚恐高衙内威逼这头亲事。”林冲说,害怕高衙内逼亲,所以心理不安。可如果林娘子是有夫之妇,高衙内如何逼亲?他在后面又说:如此,林冲去的心稳。免得高衙内陷害。这似乎在暗示,高衙内先会害死他,然后再去逼亲。所以,不休妻,他就不能去得心稳。

有学者认为,林冲是在担心高衙内为了把林娘子娶到手,不惜害他性命。为了保命,林冲只得休妻,给高衙内一个逼亲的机会。后来发生的事情似乎也证实了他的先见之明。可是,高衙内只是个不谙世事的纨绔子弟,并没有动用政府资源谋害林冲的能力,否则也不至于被林冲整得毫无办法,只能在家里装病乞怜(见上一篇分析)。真正有能力杀林冲的,其实是高俅。

高俅为了杀林冲,费了很多心思,不是高衙内能办到的。第八回,陆谦贿赂董超、薛霸,要他们在充军路上结果林冲。陆谦完全没有提到高衙内,只说:“你二位也知林冲和太尉是对头。今奉着太尉钧旨,教将这十两金子送与二位。望你两个领诺。不必远去,只就前面僻静去处,把林冲结果了,就彼处讨纸回状回来便了。若开封府但有话说,太尉自行分付,并不妨事。”

去逼亲的,也是高俅,而不是高衙内。在第二十回,晁盖当上梁山之主,派人去东京取林冲家眷。两个月后,小喽啰回来报告:“娘子被高太尉威逼亲事,自缢身死,已故半载。”晃盖上梁山是在当年的六月,小喽罗回来报告是在八月。我们可以推算,林娘子自缢是在这一年的二月,而林冲休妻是在前一年的六月份,两件事相隔了八个月。

由此便产生了疑问:林娘子已经是没有名分的人,高衙内又这么喜爱她,高俅如果真想成全高衙内,何必要等到林冲休妻八个月后才逼亲?合理的解释是,高俅本来没有逼亲的打算,在接下来的8个月里,先后发生了林冲野猪林获救、火烧草料场,逼上梁山等事件,林冲不但没有死,反而当上了梁山头目,和官府对抗。接连的失败让高俅恼羞成怒,所以才派人去逼亲,致使林娘子自缢。所以说,高俅的逼亲纯粹出于报复心理。

由此,我们看到,林冲不是预言家,并没有预知到后面这些事情。他和高衙内较量过,应该清楚高衙内没有多大能量。很明显,林冲对张教头和林娘子隐藏了他的真实想法。

不过,在“林教头风雪山神庙”一回中,有一段陆谦、富安和差拨之间的对话,似乎可以推翻以上全部结论。原文如下:

当时林冲便拿了花枪,却待开门来救火,只听得外面有人说将话来。林冲就伏门边听时,是三个人脚步响,直奔庙里来,用手推门,却被石头靠住了,推也推不开。 三人在庙檐下立地看火,数内一个道:“这条计好么?”一个应道:“端的亏管营、差拨两位用心!回到京师禀过太尉,都保你二位做大官。这番张教头没的推 故。”那人道:“林冲今番直吃我们对付了,高衙内这病必然好了。”又一个道:“张教头那厮,三回五次托人情去说:‘你的女婿没了。’张教头越不肯应承,因此衙内病患看看重了。太尉特使俺两个央浼二位干这件事,不想而今完备了。”

这段对话似乎可以证明,高衙内就是因为林冲老婆害病,高俅就是为了高衙内而陷害林冲,他从林冲离开东京后就不断托人向张家说亲事。因为林冲丈人张教头不肯答应,高俅才派陆谦来沧州杀林冲。如果真是这样,那么我们前面做的所有分析就都不成立了。《水浒传》作者也无法自圆其说。

但是,这段对话并实写。这三人在对话后不久全被林冲杀掉,只有林冲知道他们究竟说了些什么。就像武松编造了景阳岗打虎(见第七篇的附文),林冲也改编了陆谦等人的对话内容,日后在江湖上传播。他这么做,既是为了让高俅父子更加妖魔化,也为了掩盖他的某些真实想法。

那么,他究竟在想什么呢?

值得注意的是,林冲对张教头和林娘子都提到了“相互耽误”,他对张教头说:“感谢泰山厚意,只是林冲放心不下,枉自两相耽误。”又对娘子说:“娘子,我是好意,恐怕日后两下相误,赚了你。”林冲的说法值得玩味,他本人被发配充军,前途未卜,当然耽误娘子的青春了;可林娘子待在家里守候林冲,又耽误他什么事了呢?(如果不是前面所说的“高衙内为了娶林娘子而加害林冲”。)

林冲有什么心事?我们将在下一篇继续分析,先从林冲与张氏的婚姻说起。


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