重游滇西北(三) / Northwest Yunnan Revisited (Part Three)

印象丽江:色彩斑斓 / Impression Lijiang: Extravaganza of color

重游滇西北(三)

从丽江启程前往香格里拉之前,我们观看了张艺谋出品的《印象丽江》。演出的场地设在一座海拔3,100米(10,170英尺)的露天剧场,四周连绵起伏的皑皑雪山便成了演出的天然幕布。无论阴晴雨雪,来自云南各少数民族的500多名演员都会为在座的3,000多位观众奉上连台好戏。演出结束后,我们乘缆车登上玉龙雪山,徒步在森林覆盖的山间小径中旅行。

我们还走访了丽江城外拉市海区的一户纳西族家庭,参观了民宅和农田,并发现自然保护组织和当地政府联合推广的两个项目已在这户家庭得到了应用:一个是利用人畜粪便生产沼气替代木柴的家用能源项目,另一个是建设塑料大棚培育多种农作物的太阳能项目。目前,这两种技术在滇西北的普及率都很高。综合利用沼气和太阳能已使当地的木柴消耗量下降了80%,成为遏制乱砍滥伐森林的有力手段。

之后我们就上路赶往香格里拉,途中还在世界最为壮观的峡谷之一——虎跳峡稍作停留。我们走的还是十年前的老路,景色依旧熟悉,但接待游客的餐馆和旅游车的数量却多得不计其数。我再次注意到,大多数游客都是中国人,外国游客只是少数。

从虎跳峡到香格里拉的大部分路程,我们都沿着一条美丽的小河前行,不断向高海拔地区进发。在钻过一条长长的山间隧道后,我发现隧道另一端的房子和宅院变得明显带有藏族特色,宅院的周围还环绕着麦田和晾麦子的巨大木架。

Northwest Yunnan Revisited (Part Three)

Before leaving Lijiang for Shangri-la, we watched Zhang Yimou’s production of Impression Lijiang, set in an outdoor amphitheater at 3,100 meters’ (10,170 feet) elevation, with a dramatic sweep of snow-covered mountains as the backdrop to the performance. The 500-plus performers hail from virtually all the minority tribes of Yunnan, entertaining 3,000 visitors at one sitting, come rain, shine or snow. Afterwards we took the skyrail to Jade Dragon Snow Mountain and hiked the forested trails there.

We also visited the home and farmland of a Naxi minority family in the La Shi Lake area outside Lijiang, who has adopted two of the initiatives which The Nature Conservancy helped the local government introduce: a simple home biogas and solar power system which uses human and animal waste to replace firewood for energy, and plastic sheet greenhouses for the cultivation of various crops. Both are very widespread in Northwest Yunnan now. The combined use of biogas and solar power has helped cut firewood consumption by up to 80%, helping stem one important driver of deforestation.

We then set off by road for Shangri-la, stopping on the way at Tiger Leaping Gorge, one of the most spectacular gorges on earth. We had followed the same road on our last visit ten years ago, so the scenery was familiar, although the number of restaurants and tour buses catering to visitors has skyrocketed. Here again I noted that tourist visitors are mainly Chinese rather than foreigners.

The drive from Tiger Leaping Gorge to Shangri-la follows a pretty little river much of the way, eventually gaining altitude before passing through a long mountain tunnel, on the other side of which the style. of homes and farmyards becomes distinctly Tibetan in style, surrounded by fields of barley and large wooden racks for drying the barley crop.

仁安藏寨的晾麦架 / Barley drying rack in the Tibetan village of Ringha

在隧道的另一端,连猪看上去都不一样了:藏猪的体型较小,全身漆黑,全都是放养而不是关在猪栏里由主人喂食。它们是真正的散养猪,肉质异常鲜美。

和上次的沿河旅行相比,这回我又发现了另外一个变化,那就是水电站增加了不少。在中国西部,水电站的发展始终是平衡人类进步和生态保护的载体。

愈接近香格里拉,大型木制的藏屋群就愈多。大部分藏屋前都有宽敞的场院,房子的底层是开放式的,冬季可供牲畜避寒,而主人则住在温暖的楼上。有些房子上飘扬着代表宗教信仰的旗帜,也有些房子挂着中国共产党的红黄旗子。我听说这代表这家人曾经接受过特殊的经济援助,一般是改善家庭生活或翻盖房屋的补贴。

香格里拉现有人口5万左右,其中90%是藏民,还有少量的汉族及其他少数民族。接近主城区时,我再次发现香格里拉和我十年前到访时相比已经旧貌换新颜:城区规模扩大了,城里有了现代的商铺、办公楼、新学校、体育场,还有专供旅游观光的仿古老城区。

Even the pigs on the other side of the tunnel are different: Tibetan pigs are smaller in size, black in color, and allowed to graze freely rather than being kept in pens and fed by the farmers. These are truly free range pigs, and their ham is especially tasty.

The other noticeable difference on the drive along the small river this time as compared to last was the number of hydroelectric power stations along the way. The development of hydro power in Western China continues to be a complex balancing act between human progress and ecological preservation.

As we approached Shangri-la, the concentration of large wooden frame. Tibetan-style. houses grew in number. Most are surrounded by large courtyards in front, with the ground floor of the house left open for farm animals to shelter during the cold winter months while the family stays in the warmer upstairs living area. A number of houses fly flags indicating their religious affiliation, or in some cases, the red and yellow flag of the Chinese Communist Party. I was told this indicates the family has received some special economic assistance, often in connection with home improvements or renovation.

The population of Shangri-la is now about 50,000 people, of which about 90% are Tibetan. The balance is a mix of Han Chinese and other minority nationalities. As we neared the main part of town, it was again unrecognizable from the small town we’d visited slightly more than a decade before: far larger, much more spread out, with modern shopfronts and office buildings, new schools, a sports stadium, and an old town with traditional architecture clearly designed as a tourist destination.

 

香格里拉老城 / Shangri-la Old Town

我们听说周边农村有很多人的生活依然困苦,但也遇到了一些已经在城里找到工作的农民——他们也是中国农村向城市移民的一分子。香格里拉和中国其他地区一样,路上跑的汽车、卡车和公共汽车越来越多——有时还要跟牦牛竞赛一下。

随着旅游大潮的到来,商店、饭店和餐厅无论档次高低,生意都十分兴隆。根据我1999年的笔记,我曾在这儿发现过很多名称拼写错误的冒牌T恤衫和其他产品,比如“Girodano”(正确拼写应为“Giordano”,即“佐丹奴”——译注)、“Dadidas”(正确拼写应为“Addidas”,即“阿迪达斯”——译注),甚至还有“Chicago Butts”套头衫(正确拼写应为“Chicago Bulls”,即“芝加哥公牛”——译注)。如今,正牌“佐丹奴”已经在老城入口开起了时尚的品牌专卖店。

我们还参观了香格里拉藏医博物馆,馆长格桑博士用流利的英语为我们介绍了藏医的传统历史。我们还购买了一些冬虫夏草之类的药品自用,还有其他各种草药以及珍贵的食用菌——“松口蘑”,也叫“松茸”。

自然保护组织的好友带我们游览了中国第一个达到世界自然保护联盟标准的自然公园——普达措国家公园,那里的最高点海拔4,000米(13,000英尺)。在自然保护组织的倡议和协助下,公园于2007年成立,面积达1,000平方公里(600平方英里),是黑熊、黑颈鹤、小熊猫等多种野生动物的栖息地。

事实上,公园内20%的植物品种都是中国所特有,将近1/3的哺乳动物和鸟类为中国特产,还有大约100种濒危物种,公园本身也是云南三江并流保护区的组成部分。

普达措国家公园是中国国家公园整体部署的一部分。自然保护组织帮助公园的管理人员和护林员前往美国多个国家公园接受培训。有意思的是,普达措由私人经营,主要经济来源是门票收入(现在是人民币190元/人)。公园里从主接待楼到绿色观光车,从园内导游到步道、休息站,运营质量都有较高的水准。

由于海拔较高,很多游客都随身带着便携式氧气瓶,不时地吸上一口,预防可能出现的高山反应。

离开的时候,我们从迪庆香格里拉机场起飞。上次来的时候,这里还没有机场。新机场窗明几净,效率颇高。我们从迪庆飞往昆明,然后转机飞回香港。

这次旅行给我留下了很多积极的印象,比如自然保护组织配合多个政府部门和当地群众做出了重要的贡献,云南西北部的旖旎风光,当地人民的热情好客,还有我们在那里享用的健康美食。

在人类需求与自然密不可分的联系中达到某种平衡是全世界都要面临的两难抉择。在滇西北,过去10-15年间的艰苦努力和明智政策让我们看到了很多鼓舞人心的成功案例,但未来仍有众多巨大的挑战需要不断面对。

We were told that many people in the surrounding rural areas are still very poor, but we also met people who had come from those areas and found work in town — a small part of the historic migration underway from China’s rural to urban areas. As elsewhere in China, there were a lot more cars, trucks, and buses on the roads — sometimes competing with herds of yaks.

Retail, hotel and restaurant businesses seems to be thriving on the rising tide of tourism, including the high as well as low-end segments. Whereas in my notes from 1999 I found references to seeing lots of knock-off branded T-shirts and other gear with misspelled names like “Girodano”, “Dadidas”, and even a “Chicago Butts” jersey, now the real Giordano has its own smart looking retail shop right next to the gate of the Old City here.

We visited the Shangri-la Museum of Tibetan Medicine and heard a very interesting briefing on traditional Tibetan medicine (in fluent English) from its Director, Dr. Gesang (格桑). Later we stocked up on some medicines like Cordyceps Sinensis for our own use, as well as various medicinal herbs and edible mushrooms such as the prized “matsutaki” or “song rong”.

Our good friends from The Nature Conservancy (TNC) brought us to see China’s first national park to meet the International Union of the Conservation of Nature standards, Pudacuo National Park (普达措国家公园), which at its highest point is more than 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) above sea level. Announced in 2007 with the assistance and advice of TNC, it covers more than 1,000 sq. km (600 sq. mi) and is home to a wide variety of wildlife including black bears, black-necked cranes, lesser pandas, etc.

In fact, the park area contains some 20% of China’s native plant species, nearly 1/3 of China’s native mammal and bird species, and about 100 endangered species, in addition to being a part of the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Area.

Pudacuo National Park is part of the overall national park strategy for China. Part of TNC’s contribution was to train park officers and rangers in various U.S. national parks. One interesting thing about Pudacuo is that it is managed by private interests, with its main revenue source being entrance tickets (which currently cost RMB190 per head). From the park’s main reception building, to the green tour buses provided for visitors, the narration provided by park guides, and the walkways and rest stations within the park, it is a very high quality operation.

Given the altitude, lots of visitors were clutching portable oxygen bottles and taking the occasional breath to cope with potential altitude sickness.

When it came time to leave, we flew from the Diqing Airport, which did not exist at the time of our last visit. It’s new, bright, clean and very efficient. From there we flew to Kunming for our connecting flights back to Hong Kong.

I brought back many positive impressions, including that of the important contribution of The Nature Conservancy in concert with various government departments and the local people, the spectacular scenery in N.W. Yunnan, the hospitality and warmth of the local people, and the delicious and healthy food we enjoyed while there.

Balancing the inextricably interwoven needs of man and nature is one of the great dilemmas that we face globally. In Northwest Yunnan we can find a host of encouraging success stories resulting from determined hard work and smart policies over the past 10-15 years, as well as a continuing series of big challenges on the road ahead.

 

移动技术已经深入中国农村 / Mobile telephony has arrived in rural China


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